An overview of oral glucose lowering medications

Oral glucose lowering medications are primarily used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although researchers are now investigating whether patients with type 1 diabetes would also benefit from using these types of drug in addition to their usual insulin regimen.
Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, is one of the most widely used and studied glucose lowering medication agents. It was shown to improve glucose control by reducing hepatic glucose output and improving insulin sensitivity. While it is regarded as the primary oral treatment option for overweight patients with T2DM, monotherapy is often insufficient when the disease progresses. Add-on therapies include insulin products or other oral glucose lowering medications, such as sulfonylureas, PPAR-gamma agonists, DPP-IV inhibitors or SGLT-2 inhibitors.
DPP-IV inhibitors, such as sitagliptin, saxagliptin and linagliptin, prevent the breakdown of incretins by blocking the enzymatic activity of DPP-IV. This enhances meal-induced insulin secretion. This drug class has great potential for improving glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia and minimal effects on weight gain so that it can safely be combined with insulin. 
SGLT-2 inhibitors, such as canagliflozin or empagliflozin, are a relatively new class of glucose lowering medications. They selectively inhibit the sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) in the kidneys, causing an increase in urinary glucose excretion. This drug class was shown to improve glycemic control accompanied by reduction of body weight and blood pressure in patients with T2DM either as monotherapy or as add-on therapy to insulin treatment.
Several cardiovascular outcome trials with SGLT-2 inhibitors have shown reduced mortality in people with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular disease, through diminished occurrence of heart failure. More recently, improved survival has been shown with these agents in people with congestive heart failure, also in those without diabetes. Finally, diminished progression of renal failure has been shown, again also in those without diabetes.

Glucose lowering medication studies at Profil

Profil has been involved with trials and research into every class of glucose lowering medications developed since 1999. Our researchers have conducted numerous pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and mode of action studies to elucidate the effects of various oral glucose lowering medications. The focus of this research has been the efficacy, safety and dose–response of the drug and its performance as an add-on therapy compared to other diabetes treatments.

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Dr. Tim Heise

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"Profil is the go to test house for anything diabetes related. Profil has a very good reputation and we wanted to work with you because we knew the quality of work we were expecting to get and the support we would get would be world-class."

Dr. Sabih Chaudhry, CEO, Afon Technology Ltd.
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